Log In Via Your Institution. Booldly bot meekly online only : EUR Related Content Search Find related content. Most Read Most Cited No results returned. Yet those remarks could be seen as a partial affirmation. Mehmed very likely had no large, permanent troupe of entertainers on the payroll; but a modest number of men with various skills and talents were on hand, as listed above, having their food and a sleeping space in the servants quarters. They might be called in to perform as and when required, and to earn a special reward if the monarch happened to be pleased and did not change his mind.
By the time Spandounes was writing his final version in the s, the court establishment was very considerably greater, and hundreds of men and boys were serving, and more were in training for service.
They were located not only at Istanbul but, for example, " other such pages are kept in other centres such as Pera or Adrianople, with their own eunuchs and teachers" p. Even if one or two might have been nicknamed 'Dilsiz' for some other reason, it would be difficult to argue this for all four.
Further, it is hard to imagine how these mutes could have performed their duties unless there was some regular means of communication between them and the highest officials. In later centuries, successive Sultans are recorded as using sign language with their mutes, especially the two or three senior mutes who were among their favourites and intimates. It seems likely that the process of developing signed communication was beginning, or had already begun, in the s, when Fatih Sultan Mehmed II was withdrawing from a 'public' life, and cultivating privacy and seclusion.
One of Mustafa's flaws was his addiction to intimate relations with women, including those already forming part of the harem of other men. Such habits could lead only to hatred and strife. Mustafa died suddenly in One version of his death, offered in this Turkish web page, was that he had been killed in the hamam of Nigde, by a mute, at the instigation of the Grand Vizier, Mahmud Pasha. It was rumoured that Prince Mustafa attempted or actually had illicit relations with Mahmud's wife.
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That version of Mustafa's death is quite likely to be mistaken see next entry under Yet the incidental details of such rumours tended to reflect the well-known life of the times, otherwise nobody would believe them at all. For example, if it had been well known that no deaf mute person worked in bath houses at this time, or that such people had never been involved in murderous activities, such a rumour could hardly have been recorded in writing.
So the presence of a mute servant, ready to carry out the Vizier's extreme wishes, may be a credible detail, even if, in this case, no such murder necessarily happened. Stavrides offers a lengthy and cautious analysis of the "melange of rumors and speculations" surrounding the dismissal and execution of Mahmud Pasha pp. The possibility of confusion or conflation of rumours about the execution of Mahmud Pasha and the execution of Gedik Ahmed Pasha whose wife was reported, by some sources, to have been raped by Prince Mustafa in a bath-house is also considered pp.
The execution was therefore most likely to have been carried out by the official executioner and his assistants, and probably not by any deaf persons. However, Alderson, , p. European ambassadors were now received coolly by Suleyman, who remained seated and did not deign to speak to them pp.
Amidst an immense amount of interesting detail offered by Necipo g lu, through several centuries, from a wide range of primary sources, mentions of silence, 'mutes', and sign language occur in occasional corners and endnotes, e. On the 14th October , after hosting a dinner for his ministers, the Sultan gave each one the gift of a robe. Gedik Ahmet Pasha received a black robe, a symbol of death. The underlying motive was probably Bayezid's fear that Gedik Ahmet Pasha was plotting against him. However other historical accounts have Gedik Ahmet Pasha assassinated on Bayezid's orders, on the 18th November He was a native of Dimetoka.
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One of Bayezid's daughters, at the age of 20, was reported to have been unable to speak. To find a solution, the princess was taken to the shrine of Abdal Hasan.
By some agency, she found the ability to speak pp. Bayezid probably had about 15 daughters, and at least eight sons, by eight or more wives or concubines. The vagueness of identity, and the hagiographical nature of the story, tend to reduce its credibility as an historical report; yet it is possible that some genuine impairment and incident or period in the life of one of Bayezid's daughters is represented here. In such a case, there would also be a possibility of mute female servants being employed with the mute princess. GIBB, E.
London: Luzac, pp. He went to Istanbul in the reign of Bayazid II and made a favourable impression among the literati and the Sultan's Court. His financial position was precariously dependent on the patronage of courtiers, who might easily fall from grace. So Zati opened a fortune-telling booth, later to become a literary rendezvous. It appears that Zati's impaired hearing, plus a measure of obstinacy, precluded more reliable means of income pp.
Some of his less skilful poetry might be attributed to the difficulty of hearing critical review from friends p.
However, literary reviewers over centuries have found much merit in parts of Zati's oeuvre, which was unexpected from a man of humble origins and informal education. They note that Zati was " plagued by a deafness " p. Terra Nova 2 2 From this range of sources, the authors sketch the severity and extent of damage to Istanbul, and to the Topkap i Palace.
Houses built adjacent to the sea-walls sunk into the sea. That gate had some ongoing importance, as successive Sultans used the kayiks or caiques , boats propelled by teams of oarsmen, to travel by water from the Palace to other parts of Istanbul. At least in some periods, the palace 'mutes' seem also to have been oarsmen, for convenience and to maintain the secrecy of the Sultan's conversation if he had officials with him on the boat see e.
Penzer states 66, 86 that one gate was called both the Hastalar Kapi Hastalar Kapusu, Hospital Gate and the De g irmen Kapi Mill Gate , and provides several transliterations of each name. That gate is marked as Dejrmen-kapousi on another map by Fr.
The map shows the Hospital or Mill gate about metres south of the point where the Golden Horn opens to the Bosphorus, while the Kayiklar Gate is about metres west of the point. The location of the ' Dilsiz Gate ' is not given. However, the apparent existence of a 'Dilsiz Gate' somewhere on the sea walls around Topkap i Palace, in , perhaps reflects some regular activities of the Sultan's mutes, whether as oarsmen, or as messengers or possibly even as secret assassins, disposing of bodies in a weighted sack at sea, as some reports have suggested.
It is difficult to see how a name such as 'Dilsiz Gate' could have been invented by a contemporary witness, if there had not been a gate that had actually been called by that name for some period of time, however short. As other records showing such a name have not easily been found up to now, perhaps the name was used for only a short period. That is not surprising, in view of the evidence from Necipo g lu of the continuously shifting ways in which considerable numbers of servants flowed in and out and around the Topkap i buildings.
There were additions and rearrangements and half-hidden connecting ways between rooms, buildings and open spaces, with inevitable changes in the names and nicknames of all kinds of doors, gates, rooms and corners, some of which were widely known and others only narrowly and briefly known. If the 'Dilsiz Gate' referred to by Ruhi was little known, some people reading or hearing his report would have asked 'Where's that?
The better known landmark in this case, the Hastalar Gate, although that also seems to have had more than one name would then have been more likely to be used when retelling the story. Another hypothesis might be that the 'Dilsiz gate' referred to a gate that had temporarily been blocked up, so that 'nothing came out', i.
Istanbul: Belediye Matbaas i , pp. Istanbul, pp. The portrait caused some critical discussion and debate, apparently about whether the artist had properly represented the appearance of Fatih Sultan Mehmed. One of Yavuz's mutes was involved in the procedure of this debate. Thus during his childhood Yavuz had probably seen his grandfather, but perhaps only rarely, as his father Bayezid II had been governor of Amasya while Fatih was alive. The point has some relevance to the story of Fatih's portrait.
Paris: Libraire du Constitutionnel. Selim was obliged to hide his anger, and comply; but while en route for Erivan, it appears that he decided to humiliate his Grand Vizier for allowing the army to get out of hand, and to use the occasion to dismiss him. Possibly, in this case, the 'mute' servant was only mute and not also deaf; or was good at lipreading.
Alternatively, the 'words spoken in a low voice' may have been merely a metaphor for secretly signing. Selim could also have spoken the words quietly, while covertly miming, under his cloak, the action of cutting the saddle straps, and nodding meaningfully toward the Grand Vizier. Without some independent corroborative evidence, it is hard to know what happened, or whether the incident actually occurred.
Could the saddle straps be cut so easily, without the rider noticing what was being done?
Did the Grand Vizier have no guards or attendants on the march, who would prevent the trick being played? Lamartine was a statesman, poet and historian, who can hardly have invented the whole tale years later; but he might have recorded as simple fact an incident that could have begun with the Vizir's horse stumbling, and then attracted creative imagination which saw the Vizir's tumble as symbolic of his loss of favour with the Sultan.
It would be useful to find some contemporary or early Turkish reference to this story. The name given for the unhorsed Grand Vizier, Mustafa Pasha, is also problematical. Finkel , Thus Lamartine's interesting tale seems to have several flaws. Ilhan notes Abstract, p. A Glossary pp. Discussing 'derelict' lands, Ilhan suggests p.
He described the qualities and character of Ibrahim Pasha, who was Suleiman's Grand Vizier from to , and who had already made himself indispensable to Suleiman.