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Most of the checks cultivars were not included in the quadrant representing consistently superior genotypes lower-left in Fig. Five RILs, B, B, B, W and W, were consistently superior for both winter and spring environments Table 2 , thus constituting promising breeding material combining yield potential and general adaptation to sowing date. Table 2. Lentil genotypes identified using the consistency method included in the higher and more stable yield  quadrat considering spring and winter sowing environments.
This result suggests that winter sowing of currently available lentil cultivars would not be a good strategy to increase lentil yield in the target region.
The Lentil : Botany, Production and Uses
Table 3. This means that the traditional spring sowing date would not grant better results of the new RILs as lentil crop in the target region. In contrast, no significant reduction in yield was observed for winter sowing of the selected RILs Table 3b. Again, the exception to the significant yield increment was the combination ZA The parental lines showed differential behaviors in different sowing dates. This landrace comes from a mild climate region, and is probably poorly adapted to the harsher conditions of the meseta.
Global production, processing and utilization of lentil: A review - ScienceDirect
More noticeable is the behaviour of the two other parents. While 'Precoz' was among the highest yielding materials, 'WA' showed a poor yield under all conditions Fig. The most likely reason for this low yield is the long life cycle, with a late start of flowering date which likely caused the observed flower abortion and affected seed filling as a consequence of heat stress and terminal drought.
On the other hand, 'Precoz', although it was described as a material with poor winter-hardiness Kahraman et al. These results suggest that winter hardiness is a very complex trait highly dependent on the differential, changing and somehow unpredictable winter conditions Muehlbauer, Further studies on individual characters and specific yield components would explain the different yield potential and adaptation patterns detected in the RIL progenies. Most of the lentil cultivars currently sown in Spain proved to be better adapted to spring sowing conditions, thus justifying their use in such traditional conditions in the meseta , but only three of them were included among the best yielding materials in these sowing conditions Fig.
In general, the observed effect of the sowing date on lentil yield in the Spanish meseta agrees with previous studies in which an earlier sowing date increases lentil yield, both in Mediterranean climate zones Fagnano et al. But, according to our results, this effect would depend on the genotypes considered.
Thus, to achieve the desired increase in yield, not only a shift in sowing date would be required, it must be coupled with a proper varietal choice. In our trials, the combination of changing the sowing date to winter together with the use of winter adapted lentil material increased the potential average yield. Although comparisons carried out in this type of trials need to be checked in real farmer plots and management, it seems evident that the agronomic strategy analyzed here is a promising alternative to attract the attention of farmers for this crop and a way for them to supply the interesting lentil market in Spain.
As a main conclusion, this work contributes strong evidence that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials are sown at late fall, and also detects pre-breeding materials available to accomplish this goal. Special thanks to Dr.
Received: 29 May Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Introduction Top Lentil Lens culinaris Medik. Results Top Analysis of variance detected differences with an associated probability below 0.
Discussion Top The parental lines showed differential behaviors in different sowing dates. Abstract Lentil Lens culinaris Medik.
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Barrios A, Mapeo de QTLs involucrados. Winter pea and lentil response to seeding date and micro- and macro-environments. Agron J Cokkizgin A, Shtaya JY, Lentil: Origin, cultivation techniques, utilization and advances in transformation. Agric Sci 1: Erskine W, View cookies policy. Zoom Zoom. Availability Usually despatched within 2 weeks. With Free Saver Delivery. Facebook Twitter Pinterest Share.
Description In the last three decades, the global production of lentils has almost tripled due to larger harvest areas but also more importantly from progress in research and productivity. Food preparation. Food processing. Food supply. Genetic improvement. Improved varieties. Nitrogen fixation.
The lentil: botany, production and uses 
Pest control. Plant anatomy. Plant breeding. Plant disease control. Plant diseases. Plant ecology. Plant genetic resources. Plant morphology. Plant pests. Plant water relations. Postharvest treatment. Seed quality. Soil fertility. Soil management. Water use efficiency. Weed control. Erskine, William. Related item.
Other format: ; ISBN: Electronic books. Internet Resources. Summary The lentil is a crop primarily grown in the developing world. It has the ability to use water efficiently and grow in marginal environments as well as being high in protein.